War And Civilization
Q. 4 why warfare was a males’ affair. a case of civilization
For the most part of history, only men could participate in wars and serve in armies. Although a few women participated in warfare, much of their roles were indirect. Males could join the warfare activities while at a young age either by volunteering or as a way of meeting the society’s requirements. Most of the times, communities and kingships would force men to participate in wars. There are several reasons scholars have put forward to explain the scenario.
Masculinity and perceptions associated with it played a crucial role in warfare activities. The activities in warfare were considered fit for people who would adapt to life-threatening and adverse conditions. Since time immemorial, endurance, toughness, aggression, and physical prowess have been the requirements for people who engage in battles. Furthermore, the warfare culture is characterized by high degrees of social cohesion that is essential for operational efficiency against opponents. Women are most of the times assumed to be untrustworthy and could be the sources of weaknesses in such crucial operations. The emphasis on masculinity, therefore, favors males and disregards the potentials of women in warfare.
The perception of women in regards to warfare has, however, undergone rapid changes in the last half of the 20th century. In history, women’s’ life centered on family matters. With the passage of time, they started playing integral roles in movements (Bryant, 2014). In World War I, for example, various restrictions and taboos directed at women were broken. More than three million women were deployed in food and textile industries to aid warfare activities. More changes were seen than ever before during the World War II when one hundred women were recruited for Army Corps for non-combat missions. Over time and with the spread of civilization, women are now part of militaries and armies that are involved in direct warfare activities (Bryant, 2014). It is, however, important to note that males still dominate the forces.
Q. 5. War as a catalyst of Human Civilization
Wars have been the violent catalyst for changes throughout history. They inflict terrible sufferings, as well as, degradation of resources. Wars are, however, part of the agencies that help bring changes and progress in human life and the world. It might sound absurd, but wars are part of the human life activities. Wars simulate national growth, advancement in information technology, medical research, and solve some of the most complex political differences. They evoke bravery and heroism among communities and nations.
In medical and health care systems, war has been the subject of appreciation as it has promoted human civilization. It is indeed a catalyst that has brought advances in medical science. Most of the chemical medicines and surgical techniques used in clinics and hospitals were not discovered when people were at peace in their homes. They were discovered and advanced when the need arose particularly when casualties of wars were in dire need of medication. Diseases such as Pestilent that evolved out of the war needed the rapid response with the appropriate medical treatment (Smith, 2006).
There are indeed several contributions of war to human civilization. The US, for example, had economic gains for its people from both World War I and II. If one looks the wars as agents of world peace, they did succeed in promoting peace and keeping the world safe. World War II eliminated Hitler who was a threat to the peace and unity of many people. In the 1973 war, Israel won a battle that enabled it to expand boundaries and acquire land that was previously a forbidden territory. Its citizens could then settle and develop the land. Several wars and uprisings such as those in the Arab world, Egypt, and Libya are all efforts of bringing civilization to the society. Finally, wars are of value to human rights. The World War II, for example, propelled human rights onto the global stage and conscience (Flowers, 2014).
Bryant, J. (2014, January 1). How War Changed the Role of Women in the United States. Retrieved December 11, 2014, from http://www.yale.edu/ynhti/curriculum/units/2002/3/02.03.09.x.html
Flowers, N. (2014, January 1). A Short History of Human Rights. Retrieved December 11, 2014, from http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/edumat/hreduseries/hereandnow/Part-1/short-history.htm
Smith, A. (2006). Why We War: The Human Investment in Slaughter and the Possibilities of Peace. Lulu.com.
War And Civilization