Research methods research proposal

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?………………….…………………….9 Research design…………………………………………………………………………….10 Participants…….……………………………………………………………………………11 Material Used……….…………………………………………………………………………..11 Procedure…………………………………………………………………….………………11 Analysis of Data……………………………………………………………………………..12 Research Ethics to be applied………………………………………………………………..13 Evaluation of the Study…..……………………………………………………………………………………..14 Conclusion………………………………………………………..…………………………..15 References…………………………………………………………..………………………..16 INTRODUCTION EFFECT OF DURATION OF SURGERY ON PRESSURE ULCERS Throughout the nursing profession, effective patients positioning has been such the weighty issue. Treatment and reduction of pressure ulcer cases has also been a central issue as far as the medics are concerned. Pressure ulcer is defined as damaged or discoloration areas of a skin persisting after removing of pressure, which have the higher likelihood to be due to pressure effects on the tissues (Taylor, C, &amp. Lillis, C. 2011). This implies that pressure ulcers emanate from prolonged pressure ulcers, that cause skin, muscle or tissue damages. Perioperative period is the period at which most patients are at highest risk of developing the pressure ulcers (Tubaishat, A, &amp. Saleh, M. 2010). Surgical patients do present a challenge in the prevention of pressure ulcers since they are quite immobile and unable in perceiving the discomforts of prolonged pressure. From the existing literature, it is quite unclear about the percentage of pressure ulcers that actually begins from the operating theatre. It is indicates that pressure ulcer beginning from the operating room seems to have a higher impact than those than the result from the medical patients (Thomas, DR. 2005). The reason behind the differences lies in the changes in the circulatory and the metabolic occurring during surgery. The incidences might be ranging from 8.55 to 67%. However, a number of studies have indicated that risks of pressure ulcers are high in older patients. Study conducted showed 9.4% incidences in patients in ages between 20, and 40 years (Schoonhaven, L, &amp. Defloor, T. 2002). Various studies have identified various risk factors other than pressure that could be having an impact on pressure ulcer development. However, duration of surgery is one risk factor that up to date has not been confirmed as a risk factor of pressure ulcer development. A huge debate about surgery duration as a risk factor has developed over decades. Schoonhaven in 2002 studied the duration of surgery and concluded that it was not an exclusive factor for pressure ulcer. In contrast to this, another study made by Steven in 2004 concluded that pressure ulcer was a risk factor. Until today, studies made on duration of surgery fail to develop a consensus concerning the duration of s

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