PhD level 4

The favourable conditions can occur when the organization can take advantage of the oppurtunities that are external to the organization. Competitiveness also increases due to the proximity of the supportive industry around the city.The study of the relationship between competition and competitiveness has remained neglected (Shi-rong amp. Guang-kun, 2008). The ability of competition relies only on competition and not on capability. Firms are realigning their competitive strategies while trying to maintain or increase their competitive advantages (Jung, Wang amp. Wu, 2009). Studies have been conducted but researchers have not focused on how the three management domains – competitive strategy, TQM practice, and project management performance – linked together.Many organizations have failed to achieve much competitive advantage through the implementation of TQM practices while many have achieved great success. The failure could be due to lack of implementation of all of the key TQM practices. It could also be due to the absence of the complementary assets that must be combined with TQM to achieve competitive advantage (Douglas amp. Judge, 2001). Thus research is unable to provide the corrective functions for TQM. Only 4 percent of the 99 articles published between 1989 and 1993 on TQM could actually assess the degree to which the TQM interventions were in place.Powell (1995) finds that over the past ten years attention has shifted from competitive positioning towards firm-specific characteristics such as culture, capabilities, know-how, process improvement and organizational climate. In the same ten years, TQM has also gained importance but TQM’s impact on strategic management research remains unclear and under-examined. Critics point out the TQM requires retraining costs paperwork and formalities. TQM is a globally strategic pervasive force but its dissemination is a challenge because of the new attention on firm-specific

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