Literature Review Outline on Improving Reading Fluency in Elementary Students

i. Definitions and Benefits of Constant Time Delay – Citation of Reference by Aldemir amp. Gursel (2014): These are teaching techniques that build reading fluency by increasing word recognition. Teaching utilizes procedures that entail observational learning groups such as pronunciation of letters and spelling lessons.b) Objectives: The ambition of the study was to use a multiple baseline design to evaluate the effects on taped numbers intervention and constant time delay on number identification accuracy among kindergarten students.bb. Criticisms: The absence of response data change during intervention sessions that would aid in designing responsible mechanisms for behavior change. Elements related to peer influence such as group and choral responding were not accounted for in the study.dd. Instruments: Formative evaluation process implanted on time delay procedures involving taped interventions such as sounds, texts, video, and animations. Using multimedia computer program inserted to a 5-second constant time- delay procedure was effective in teaching sight wordsmm. Criticisms: Students with low mastery levels face a high chance of lagging behind in such procedures and thus would not be favored. In addition, the chorus method does not necessary entail memory retention of words that might affect students negatively.Aldemir, O., amp. Gursel, O. (2014). The effectiveness of the constant time delay procedure in teaching pre-school academic skills to children with developmental disabilities in a small group teaching arrangement. Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice, 14(2), 733-740.Begeny, J. C., Krouse, H. E., Ross, S. G., amp. Mitchell, R. C. (2009). Increasing elementary-aged students’ reading fluency with small-group interventions: A comparison of repeated reading, listening passage preview, and listening only strategies. Journal of Behavioral Education, 18(3), 211-228.Begeny, J. C., Daly III, E. J., amp.

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