Contemporary psychology aims at determining the relationship between emotional problems and depression symptoms. In the mechanical world, an increase in work pressure and other family-related problems have led to various psychological disorders and problems. As a consequence, the research and analysis regarding these problems increased when compared to the past. Apart from the normal psychological disorders, rumination and reflection have extensively increased. Due to its prominence in recent years, the research and analysis were narrowed down to these two concepts. Rumination and reflection were common in both females and males. Most of the researches were conducted to analyze the gender differences that existed in rumination and reflection. The main aim of this study is to explore the gender differences in rumination and reflection among men and women. Rumination has been defined as the increase in self-focused attention which is due to distress and excess amount of focus on the distress (Nolen-Hoeksema &.Jackson, 2001). It is a state where the depression and the depressed mood get prolonged and in certain cases, it gets intensified. This situation may also result in a depressive episode where the affected is depressed not for a shorter time but for a longer period of time.
Though many kinds of research have been conducted on rumination, the most prolific theory is the one that revealed the response style of men and women. It received extensive attention and analysis since it revealed the difference in the way men and women respond to a particular situation. The ruminative response style is measured as the cognitive vulnerability and it purely depends on the onset of such a depressive period. Each research and study reveals various facts that emphasize on rumination and reflection. A study proved that the distress feeling during depression has .reduced an individual’s ability to solve a problem and in turn prevents them from acting immediately to challenge stressors. (McBride &. Bagby,2006).