Vygotsky’s Cognitive Development Theories"82000 Psychological development refers to the emotional, social and personality changes. Physical growth entails that of the body, brain, health, motor skills and even sensory capacity. Cognitive development involves the changes and stability in the mental capacities and is observed in the ability to learn, reason, retain attention, keep a memory, and learning a language (Hook, Watts &. Cockcroft, 2002). In this paper, the discussion will rotate around the study of cognitive behavior, also referred to as cognitive psychology. Cognitive psychology is a branch of psychology that studies how people think, learn, remember and perceive things (Galotti, 2012). The discussion will focus on the nature of people’s intellectual processes and how their thinking capacities change with age. The paper will also discuss the two common theories used today on cognitive development by Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky. The discussion will evaluate the main contributions by the two theorists on the education settings today while making a comparison between the two theories. Finally, the discussion will focus on some of the criticism of the ideas presented by Piaget and Vygotsky. The paper will, however, start with a brief introduction into the lives of Piaget and Vygotsky. Jean Piaget was born in 1896 in Neuchatel, Switzerland and died in 1980. He showed a great intellectual talent, and this was made evident when he published his first article at a tender age of 10. He later, at the age of 21, earned his Ph.D. degree. .