Contemporary History of Middle East

When British and Russian Empires were in a great tussle to have their control in the&nbsp. Central Asia, which is known as Great Game in history, Alfred Thayer Mahan realized the strategic importance of this region and of the Persian Gulf as well and called the area the Middle East.&nbsp.Mahan used this term in his article. “The Persian Gulf and International Relations, published in the issue of September 1902 in National Review.
This term invited many criticisms for it reflected the Euro centrism to many historians. ². the British labeled Balkan and Ottoman Empire as Near East before the First World War and the region of Iran, Afghanistan and Central Asia was referred to as the Middle East. The United States government first used this term officially in 1957 in the Eisenhower Doctrine and in 1958 the State Department marked the region of Middle East including the areas of Egypt, Syria, Israel, Lebanon, Jordan, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain and Qatar.³
A-Discuss the difficulties faced by the Middle Eastern empires in adapting to the intellectual, technological, economic, political and social challenges presented by the West in the 18th and 19th centuries.
There was a time when Islamic civilization was imposing and its influences extended from the border of China to Spain. It owed its nourishing to Greek antiquity, synthesizing it with Persian and Syrian influences and added valuable contributions in mathematics and music. “Islam was also a paradox. Its social assumptions were feudal and patriarchal” but it tolerated other religions to a high degree. 4. Islam could not demarcate between secular and religious law it was deficient in the sense of divine law or natural law which was the foundation of the Greco-Roman concept of a constitutional state which also provided the determination to the Greco-Western to fight against despotism. In the 10th to 13th century by incorporating Hellenism Islam became unorthodox and interesting religion. But it could not bring itself to the anti despotic values as were observed in the West by continuous renaissance and by the incorporating anti-despotic imagery of Hellenism.
The history of rising and fall of the Ottoman Empire is a good document of the real tragedy of Islamic Civilization.

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