Australia’s gambling policy Motivations implications and options

Bostock, W.W. (2005). Australias gambling policy: Motivations, implications, and options. Journal of Gambling Issues, Issue 13, 16pgs. ProblemGambling was initially described as a reallocation of wealth, on the basis of deliberate risk, involving gain to one party and loss to another, usually without the introduction of productive work on either side (Fuller, 1977, p. 12). The pros and cons of gambling would be delved into as the discourse progresses from discussing the gambling policy in Australia, the underlying motivational factors for its proliferation, gambling’s implications and alternative options open to the government in lieu of gambling, per se.PurposeBostock averred that the ultimate purpose of the paper is the assessment of the least damaging form of gambling policy, when all aspects of gambling are taken into account (Bostock, 2005, par. 1).ObjectivesSpecifically, the paper aims to proffer the following, to wit: (1) present Australia’s gambling policy. (2) determine the effects of gambling to individuals and the society. (3) identify the policy options. and (4) assess the overall impact of gambling after all factors have been taken into consideration.Review of LiteratureThe author cited a three-volume report entitled Australia’s Gambling Industries as a source of evidence with special citation on Australian Interactive Gambling Act, 2001 which would be evaluated as needed. However, there was no portion which clearly indicated a review of literature. The article progressed from stating a brief introduction of the topic and clearly subdividing the body of the article into: (1) the extent of gambling in Australia. (2) motivations to gamble. (3) implications of gambling to the individual. (4) implications and effects of gambling for society. (5) gambling policy. (6) gambling policy options. and (7) non-traditional gambling.MethodologyThe design for the study followed a research from a wide variety of authoritative secondary sources on the topic of gambling in Australia. The author used a qualitative narrative approach by presenting relevant findings from authoritative sources on the topics abovementioned.FindingsThe highlights of the article revealed the following findings: (1) statistics show that Australia manifests the highest rate of gambling in the world with 82% of adults engaging in gambling. (2) the top reason and motivating factor to gamble is the dream of winning, followed by social reasons – enjoyment, employment and safe gambling environment, among others. (3) individuals could resort to develop psychological problems due to excessive gambling including depression, susceptibility to drug addiction, and tendencies for suicide. (4) society has also recognized the negative effects of gambling but more research is needed to qualify continued support gambling activities. (5) governments support gambling due to the revenue it generates despite its ill-effects to individuals and to the society. and (6) five policy options were presented, to wit: the fundamentalist option, the Monaco option, the Buthelezi option, the Tasmanian Green Youth Network/New Zealand Gambling Workshop option, and the survival of the fittest option.SummaryThe author highlighted the relevant issues presented in the topic: motivations, implications, and policy options of gambling in Australia. Through the use of authoritative secondary sources of research on the subject, the author was effective in enumerating the findings, as abovementioned.ConclusionsBostock proffered a concrete and abstract concluding discourse which briefly touched on the highlights of the subjects discussed. From the five policy options, the author averred that the Young Green Tasmania and the New Zealand Problem Gambling Foundation and Centre for Gambling Studies was the most appropriate due to the education and controls imposed on availability of gambling to individuals and to the society. Finally, the author indicated that it is really the accountability of government leaders and legislators to determine and weigh the implications and effects of gambling to the individuals, to the society, and to the nation, as a whole.RecommendationsIt is true that the effects of gambling should be weighed by political leaders in the light of the benefits it accords to each individual and to the society, in general. Leaders can in fact create stringent controls to emphasize the recreational values that gambling can accord but be vigilant of the ill-effects. By imposing controls in terms of age limits and frequency of gambling, leaders can incorporate the ethical principles and moral considerations in making gambling a legal and accessible. For instance, the minimum age that gambling institutions must follow to allow individuals within their confines is 25 which exemplifies more responsibility, self-control and accountability in their actions. rather than the 18 year-old limit which still puts these individuals as undergraduates with no or limited income of their own.List of referencesAll references used by the author were clearly and appropriately referenced. A wide variety of authoritative and academic sources on the topic were used to create a comprehensive study on the subject of gambling.Overall review of the articleThe article is hereby assessed on its strengths and weaknesses. From among the strengths, the article is well researched and effectively written. The use of authoritative sources gave credence to the discussion and the arrival of findings as the discourse progressed. The body of the article was well structured and presented adding clarity and accuracy to the points discussed. Overall, the ultimate objective of the author was achieved and the article is a relevant source of information for researchers who need an authoritative discussion on the topic of gambling in Australia. From among the weaknesses, the author failed to present clear cut recommendations on Australia’s gambling policy. There were limited proposals and suggestions on controlling gambling depending on age and risk factors.ReferenceBostock, W.W. (2005). Australias gambling policy: Motivations, implications, and options. Journal of Gambling Issues, Issue 13, 16pgs. Retrieved 20 May 2010. Ohtsuka, K. amp. Maddern, R. (1997). Youth Gambling in Australia. Journal of Gambling Studies, 13, 25—48. Tasmanian Gaming Commission.ProblemWith the proliferation of entertainment cites easily accessible in Australia, the growing gambling expenditure seems to be a manifestation of an increasing incidence and participation of youths in gambling. In this regard, the efforts of Australian government to regulate the participation of youths in gambling activities need to be closely evaluated in terms of diverse factors which contributed to the increasing trend. Several research studies have been undertaken to determine critical statistics, trends, participation rates, and characteristics of young gamblers in Australia. . PurposeOhstuka amp. Maddern (1997) clearly specified that the objective of the paper is to review three Australian studies (Hebron, 1997. Maddern, 1996. and Moore amp. Ohtsuka, 1997) on youth gambling, to ascertain the participation rates, and provide information on the characteristics of youth gamblers (Ohtsuka amp. Maddern, 1997).ObjectivesSpecifically, the paper aims to present the following, to wit: (1) extent of gambling in Australia. (2) gambling as part of social ethos. (3) an early introduction to the gambling culture. (4) changes in legislature. (5) advertisement directed to young gamblers. (6) data on youth gambling. (7) extent of gambling problems. (8) youth and internet gambling. and (9) a comparison with US and Canadian data. Review of LiteratureThe author did not provide a section for review of literature but cited a variety of authoritative secondary sources to support contentions and give credence to points of discussion. The article progressed from stating a brief introduction of the topic and clearly subdividing the body of the article into the abovementioned subsections. A concluding portion highlighted the summary of findings with emphasis on the three Australian studies enumerated under the purpose of the study.MethodologyThe design for the study followed a research from a wide variety of authoritative secondary sources on the topic of youth gambling in Australia, particularly on the three identified authors. The author used a qualitative narrative approach by presenting relevant findings from authoritative sources on the topics abovementioned. The participation rates where critically compared with international studies on the subject. Finally, intervention strategies were revealed to address the dilemma on youth gambling.FindingsThe highlights of the article revealed the following findings: (1) gambling is an important source of revenues for the Australian government in terms of taxes. (2) gambling is deeply imbedded in Australian culture. (3) tradition and culture oriented Australians at very young ages. (4) the youth of contemporary times have greater access to gambling sites without much restrictions. (5) advertisements for gambling encourages younger target markets. (6) a 3% participation rate among youths were indicated. (7) there was no correlation found between attraction for gambling and usage of the Internet. and (8) Australians were found to be slow learners in maturing and realizing the risks involved in gambling..SummaryThe author highlighted the relevant issues presented in the topic: Australia’s profile of youth gamblers were closely evaluated in terms of participation rates and characteristics. Through the use of authoritative secondary sources of research on the subject, the author was effective in enumerating in highlighting the strong influence of culture in orienting children to the entertainment and social interaction features of gambling. . Accordingly, since parents and children, alike share the same commitment to indulge in this entertaining activity, several courses of action would help address and regulate gambling of youths in Australia. ConclusionsOhtsuka amp. Maddern (1997) clearly presented concluding remarks which focused on proffering that the objectives of the paper were achieved. The author stipulated rationales for failure of the abstinence model for gambling and the benefits of harm minimization strategies, to wit: (1) enhance the awareness of the public on gambling related issues. (2) review the accessibility of gambling services especially to the youths. (3) practice responsible and appropriate advertising. (4) monitor availability of gambling machines. (5) reveal the real odds and risks of winning. (6) implement the reduction in accessing in-house ATMs. and (7) design health reminders and limitations for gambling.RecommendationsThe author outlined recommendations which would address the concern of increased access of youths to gambling in Australia. With the suggested counselling and implementation of ham minimization strategies, as enumerated above, the responsibility of educating the youth on the impact, effect and implications of early gambling lies in the schools. Further, through parents commitment to define some limits or restrictions on accessibility to gambling as an entertainment for their youth, it is surmised that the ill and long term negative effects of gambling would be minimized.List of referencesAll references used by the author were clearly and appropriately referenced. A wide variety of authoritative and academic sources on the topic were used to create a comprehensive study on the subject of youth gambling in Australia.Overall review of the articleThe article is hereby assessed on its strengths and weaknesses. One of the strengths is the article being well researched and effectively written. The use of authoritative sources gave credence to the discussion and the arrival of findings as the discourse progressed. The body of the article was well structured and presented adding clarity and accuracy to the points discussed. Overall, the ultimate objective of the author was achieved and the article is a relevant source of information for researchers who need an authoritative discussion on the topic of youth gambling in Australia. From among the weaknesses, the author failed to clearly discuss the details of the proposed harm minimization and steps for implementation. The proposed recommendations seem to favour children’s access to gambling at young ages than their parents’ generation. Further, the indicated Tables were not inserted on the space provided to illustrate the points indicated by the authors. ReferenceOhtsuka, K. amp. Maddern, R. (1997). Youth Gambling in Australia. Journal of Gambling Studies, 13, 25—48. Tasmanian Gaming Commission. Retrieved 25 May 2010. lt. http://eprints.vu.edu.au/358/1/Ohts%26Madd_Reformat.pdfgt. Essa, A. (2004). The Prohibition of Online-Casinos in Australia: Is it Working? QUT Law amp. Justice Journal.ProblemThe article proffered an overview of possibility and evaluation of effectiveness of prohibition of online gaming in Australia. The Australian government’s intervention in terms of designing control measures with the introduction of the Interactive Gambling Act (IGA) 2001. The very nature of the Internet was deemed responsible for making prohibition efforts futile. In this regard, the paper analyses diverse factors which impact and influence online gaming, as well as the government’s effort to prohibit it.PurposeEssa identified six parts of the paper which outlined specified objectives of the paper, to wit: the framework for the IGA, the design for prohibition, the reasons for opting for prohibition versus regulation, the motives in implementing prohibition, consequences and relevant future issues on the topic.ObjectivesEssa stipulated that the paper aims to analyse the Australian government’s efforts to prohibit online gaming, specifically focusing on whether prohibition is working (Essa, 2004, par. 1).Review of LiteratureEssa failed to provide a section for review of literature but clearly cited a variety of authoritative secondary sources to support the needed evaluation of the effectivity of the prohibition model. The article was clearly structured into the following sections: (1) structure of the IGA. (2) rationale for prohibition. (3) prohibition will not work when applied to the internet. (4) motives of the government for prohibition. (5) consequences of prohibition. and (6) future issues.MethodologyThe methodology employed a design made of researches from a diverse authoritative secondary sources on the topic of gambling in Australia. The author used qualitative descriptive approach by presenting relevant findings from authoritative sources on the topics abovementioned.FindingsThe highlights of the article revealed the following findings: (1) the prohibition model was initially found not to be working and the paper aims to examine the reasons why. (2) the key reason for the structure of the IGA is to reduce gambling problems. (3) the inherent nature of the Internet makes prohibition unviable. (4) government’s key rationale in advocating prohibition was the effect increased accessibility would have on problem gambling (Essa, 2004). (5) the consequences of prohibition include vast losses in terms of revenues, individual choice, opportunities to tap the potentials of the Internet, among others.SummaryThe author was able to effectively proffer relevant issues pertaining to the topic of prohibition of online gambling by the Australian government. It acknowledged the weakness and effectiveness of the prohibition model given the very nature of the Internet. In this regard, several future issues were revealed including the acceptance that online gambling cannot be fully controlled.ConclusionsEssa presented concluding remarks which were concise and clear in structure as it highlighted relevant points of discussion. The author identified that government’s rationale for prohibition was political in nature and failed to acknowledge independent research which proposed regulation instead. As a result, the author acknowledged that a balance must be weighed between the products of new technologies and their impact to society. The ultimate role that the government must adhere is to stand by the principles of responsible government and to practice transparency in decision making processes.RecommendationsAs clearly indicated, the problem of the prohibition model ensued from government’s wanton disregard for an independent study proposing regulation due to political pressures. Imposing prohibition was an outcry given the impossibility of the model due to the very nature of the Internet. In this regard, as any legislating body must accept, they have the moral and ethical obligation to abide by the principles of utilitarianism: the greatest benefit for the greatest number. Upon weighing the consequences of online gambling, the government must admit that despite its inability to prohibit or fully control factors which are deemed uncontrollable, they must design laws which would restrict, limit, and regulate its use.List of referencesAll references used by the author were clearly and appropriately referenced. A wide variety of authoritative and academic sources on the topic were used to create a comprehensive study on the subject of online gambling and the prohibition model.Overall review of the articleThe article is hereby assessed on its strengths and weaknesses. First and foremost, the article’s structure is clear and concise giving credence to its being effectively written which is a definite strength. The use of a wide and diverse authoritative sources provided evidence and support to the subject. The body of the article was subdivided appropriately and presented in a manner that contributed to clarity and accuracy to the points discussed. Overall, the ultimate objective of the author was achieved and the article is a relevant source of information for researchers who need an authoritative discussion on the topic of online gambling and the government’s effort to prohibit it in Australia. From among the prominent weaknesses, the author failed to clearly discuss the details of the proposed internet filtering system and how it differs to the present a review of literature which could have enhanced the discussion by introducing the references used. Further, the concluding portion was relative short without expounding on some personal insights for recommendations on possible control and regulatory measures that the government can design to address the dilemma. ReferenceEssa, A. (2004). The Prohibition of Online-Casinos in Australia: Is it Working? QUT Law amp. Justice Journal. Issue 6. lt. http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/journals/QUTLJJ/2004/6.htmlgt.

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